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La Storia della Razza Bulldog

Bulldog Inglese

THE EVOLUTION OF THE BULLDOG.

By R. H. Voss

R.H. Voss suggests that the Breed go back to the War Dogs of the Ancient Britons

OUR DOGS,

December 15, 1933. This article is reprinted for those who have a deep interest in the history of the Bulldog Breed. Courtesy of the A.R.F. Britain was made a Roman province in the year 50 A.D., when the British Chieftain Caractacus was defeated by Emperor Claudine. At that time there were ``pugnaces", or war dogs, in Britain, which were used in war, for the contests in the amphitheatre and in the chase. These fighting dogs of Britain were known as the ``broad-mouthed dogs of Britain" during the Roman era, and there is very little doubt that they were the original and remote ancestors of our Mastiff and Bulldog. They Appealed immensely to the Romans, who sent considerable numbers of them from Britain to Rome to take part in the sports of the amphitheatre, and it has even been said that the Romans appointed an officer to select British dogs and export them to Rome. The ``pugnaces" of Britain were specifically alluded to by Arrain in the year 130, and somewhere about 390, when the Western Empire was beginning to decline, Claudian, the poet, mentioned them, and distinguished them from all other dogs as being able to pull down a bull. Twenty years later the Goths, under Alaric, sacked Rome, whose Western Empire fell after 437 years of power, and the same year (410) the Roman garrisons were withdrawn from Britain, which was left a prey to its Saxon invaders. There is evidence that from Italy the breed of British war dogs was disseminated over the Continent in the year's 50/410. The Saxon Kingdom of England was succeeded in 1066 by the Norman kings, and the training of bulls, bears, horses, and other animals for the purpose of baiting them with dogs was practiced by the jugglers who were introduced into England by her Norman conquerors. As early as Henry II's time (1154) the baiting of bulls and bears by dogs was a popular amusement. Henry II had gained Bordeaux on his marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1151, and this important town remained in the hands of the English till about 1411, for approximately 260 years. From 1356 to 1367 the Court of King Edward III (father of Edward the Black Prince), with its attendant English sports of bull and bear baiting, was held at Bordeaux. It was in or about 1406 that Edmond de Langley, Duke of York, the Fourth of the seven sons of Edward III, wrote a treatise entitled the ``Mayster of Game". Edmond de Langley was master of the game and of the hawks to Henry IV, and in his treatise he described the Alaunt or Allen as a dog with a large, short, and thick head and short muzzle, which was remarkable for his courage, so that when he attacked an animal he hung on, and which was used in bull-baiting. But it is well known that Edmond de Langley's treatise was to all intents and purposes nothing but a translation of a work written a few years earlier by Gaston Phoebus, Comte de Foix, who described the great French Alant, drawing a distinction between the Alant Gentil and the Alant de Boucherie. Geoffrey Chaucer, the father of English poetry, wrote ``Knight's Tale" about the same time (1390), and extolled the Alaunt therein as a dog of great size, strength, and courage, used in the chase of the lion and the bear. There can be very little doubt that the French ``Alant" of Gaston de Foix were one and the same dog, the French Alant being the descendent of the English Alaunts exported to Bordeaux, and in turn the ancestor, without any doubt whatsoever, of the Dogue de Bordeaux, the huge fighting dog of the South of France. In 1556 it is known that Philip II introduced great numbers of English Alaunts into Spain and the island of Cuba for the purposes of the arena. IN 1576 Dr. Caius, of Cambridge, described the ``Mastvve" or ``Bandigge", which was undoubtedly the direct descendent of the Alaunt, as a vast, huge, stubborn, ugly and eager dog, of a heavy and burdenous body, serviceable to ``bait and take the bull by the ear", two dogs at most being sufficient for that purpose, however untamable the bull might be. In 1585 A. Hondius painted an oil painting on an oak panel (which came into the possession of Mr. Frank Adcock) which depicted two bandogges or Alaunts attacking a wild boar in the bed of a shallow stream. One was red, with a black muzzle and the other white, with brindle ear patches and they both had ``rose" ears, and long fine tails, and looked a s though they must have weighed 100lbs. To 120 lbs. The red dog had a firm grip on the left ear of the boar.


G. R. KREHL'S THEORY EXAMINED.


In 1900 Mr. John Proctor, and Englishman resident in Antwern, who was a well-known dog fancier, and who had judged the Dogues de Bordeaux at Paris in 1894, purchased an old bronze placque or medallion in Paris from Monsieur A. Provendier, a noted breeder of French Bulldogs. This antique bronze placque was dated 1625, and bore in bas-relief the head of a cropped Bulldog, and the inscription ``Dogue de Burgos Espna", the artist's name being Cazalla. From this bronze placque the late Mr. George R. Krehl, who was in 1900 the editor of ``The Stock Keeper", built up a theory as to the origin of the French Bulldog, after having in 1893 created somewhat of a sensation by benching at the Kennel Club Show St. Crispin, Lizette, Saida, Rayon d'Or, Riquette, and Jeanne la Folle, funny little creatures, freshly imported from Paris. He deduced from this placque, and from the fact that Burgos is the principle town of Old Castelle, and was formerly noted for the breeding of dogs for use in the arena, that the Bulldog originated in Spain, and migrated thence to Bordeaux, where services of the animals were in demand for fighting and for dog and donkey contests, and that finally the dogs traveled up to Paris where they bantamised the breed into the French Bulldog. In my option, Mr. Krehl's theory will not for one moment hold water. The fact that the ``pugnacious" of Britain were known as the ``broad-mouthed dogs of Britain" and that Claudian in 390 stated that they were able to pull down a bull, shows that these dogs were, of course, in a rough and typical manner only, the original stock from which the Bulldog and Mastiff sprang. That these dogs were in the years 50/410 exported to Rome by the Romans, and from Rome disseminated over the Continent, there is no doubt. Further, it has been shown that as early as 1154 the baiting of bulls and bears by dogs in England was a popular amusement, and it stands to reason that these dogs were the descendents of the ``broad-mouthed dogs of Britain". Also, it has been shown that from 1151 till 1411 Bordeaux belonged to England, and that the English Court was actually situated there from 1356 till 1367, with its accompaniment for bull and bear baiting. It was whilst the English still held Bordeaux that Comte Gaston de Foix described the great French Alant so fully, and it is clear from the words of Edmond de Langley and of the poet Chaucer that the French Alant of Comte Gaston de Foix and the English Alant of de Langley and Chaucer were one and the same animal. The Alant of England was undoubtedly exported to France from 1151 onwards for a period of 260 years, and he was almost certainly crossed there with some remote descendents of the British war-dogs which hundreds of years previously had traveled to France via Rome. The English Alaunt, when Chaucer wrote in 1390, was a dog of great size, as he would have to be if used against the lion and the bear. The words of Dr. Caius in 1576 (186 years later) and the painting of A. Hondius in 1585 shows that at that period he still remained in England. A huge and heavy dog and obviously none but a very large dog could ``take the bull by the ear," to use Dr. Caius' words. It is absolutely in keeping, therefore, imagining that the Dogue de Bordeaux, as imported into England in 1895 by Mr. Sam Woodiwiss and the late Mr. H.C. Brooke, was originally descended from the English Alaunts which were exported to Bordeaux from 1151 to 1411.

THE DOGUE DE BORDEAUX.

The Dogue de Bordeaux was in 1895, in the year that Mr. John Proctor judged the breed at Bordeaux Show, a dog of an average height of 25 ½ inches and of an average weight of about 120 lbs. He had a very big wrinkled skull, a broad, deep, and powerful muzzle, very pendulous flews, and underjaw, which projected slightly, large nostrils. He also had small and deep-set eyes of a light color of a wicked expression, a deep furrow up the skull, a thick neck, muscular shoulders, a wide and deep chest and powerful limbs. The color, which was preferred, was a reddish-fawn, with light eye, a liver-colored nose, and a red mask without dark shadings. These dogs were for a great many years, from the English occupation of Bordeaux onwards, bred for encounters in the arena, being pitted against each other or against the bull, the bear, or the ass, and even as late as 1906 these encounters occasionally took place. Matador du Midi, a young fawn dog which Mr. H.C. Brooke imported in 1895, was of the old fighting strain, and amongst his ancestors were; Caporal (for seven years champion of the Pyrenees), Megre (a Bitch which had been pitted against bear, wolf, and Hyena) and Hercules (which was finally killed by a jaguar in a terrific battle in San Francisco). When it was 18 months old Mr. Brooke gave Matador du Midi a ``jump" against a big Russian bear, and the dog showed great science in keeping his body as much sideways as possible, to avoid the bear's hug, and threw the bear fairly and squarely on the grass times. The average skull circumference of Dogue De Bordeaux measured 26 ½ inches, although his average height was only 25 ½ inches, and from the corner of the eye to the tip of the nose the average measurement was 3 inches. In 1896 a club was formed in England for the Dogue de Bordeaux, and Mr. H.C. Brooke, Monsieur Megnir,(of L'Eleveur), Dr. Wiart, and others drew up a standard, but the anti-cropping edict of the Kennel Club in 1898 killed the breed stone dead in England. In 1907 the dog's use in the arena in France began to be entirely discontinued, and at Paris show that year there were only 10 Dogues on view, and the winners had button ears and black masks, like English Mastiffs. When I stayed for three months in Bordeaux home with me, but in the home of the breed I only saw three or four Dogues, and only one good one. None of them was cropped, and they had either rose or button ears, and only one had the red mask, the light eyes, and the liver-colored nose.


THE NAME OF BULLDOG.

During the reigns of Mary, Elizabeth, James I, and Charles I, which covered the years 1553 to 1649, the baiting of bulls and full-grown bears by dogs was a very popular sport. Hentzner, in his itinerary, printed in Latin in the region of Queen Elizabeth in 1598, stated that there was a place built in the form of a theatre which served for baiting of bulls and bears, which described as being fastened behind, and then worried by ``great English dogs", which shows that in 1598 the dogs were still very large. In 1556 Philip II became King of Spain and introduced great numbers of English Alaunts into Spain and the islands of Cuba and Majorca for purposes of the arena. In my own mind there is very little doubt that the dog from Burgos depicted upon the old bronze plaque, dated 1625, was a descendant of these English dogs, or wan an imported English dog himself. It was not until 1631, in the reign of Charles I, that the name ``Bulldog" was first mentioned in England. There is a letter in the Record Office, which was written in 1631 from St. Sabastian, in Spain, by an Englishman called Prestwich Eaton to his friend George Wellingham in St. Swithin's Lane, London, asking for a good ``Mastive" dog and two good ``Bulldoggs" to be sent out to him. This is definite proof that the Bulldog and the Mastiff were then becoming separate breeds. It is also definite proof that six years after the date of the Burgos plaque the export of Bulldogs (as they were just beginning to be called) from England to the sport-loving dons of Spain, which had been commenced by Philip II 75 years earlier, was still continuing. The cropped dog depicted on the old Spanish placque of 1625 was very noticeably a big dog and very noticeably a Bulldog, being much underhung, with a big skull and a well laid back nose. Many years later, in the year 1840, Bill George imported from Spain a Spanish Bulldog, which he called Big-headed Billy, whilst in 1868 Mr. Macquart brought over Bonhomme and Lisbon, and in 1873 Mr. Frank Adcock acquired Toro and Alphonse in Madrid. All these five were termed pure-bred Spanish Bulldogs, and they were all exactly of the type depicted on the 1625 placque. Big-headed Billy was brindle-pied, Bonhomme a brindle, Toro a red carroty brindle, and Alphonse a rich fawn with a black mask and slight white markings, and all these four dogs weighed exactly 90 lbs., whilst I heard it stated that Lisbon, a brindle bitch, weighed slightly more than 90 lbs. Lisbon and Alphonse were both noted dogs in the arena in Spain. Toro had a 22-inch skull, stood 22 inches at the shoulder, and measured 2 ½ inches from the corner of the eye to the tip of the nose. A very good red Spanish Bulldog, with a black mask, was exhibited at the Royal Aquarium in 1896, and mistakenly entered as a Dogue de Bordeaux. He had a good Bulldog head, with his nose well laid back, and was very much underhung, as was Monsieur Rieu's brindle dog of the fighting strain, whelped about 1900, and reputed to be a grand dog in the arena. This dog also weighed about 90 lbs., his height at the shoulder was 21 inches, and he only measured 2 inches from the corner of eye to the tip of the nose. Seeing that Mr. George Raper's Ch. Rabagae, whelped 1893, which weighed only 56 lbs., and had a 20 ¼ inch skull, also measured 2 inches from the corner of the eye to the tip of the nose, it is clear that these big 90 lb. Spanish dogs were reasonably short in face, and they had proper Bulldog tails, with a downward crook at the root and another at the end. They were all cropped. It seems to me quite clear that the Dogue de Bordeaux, which averaged 120 lbs. in weight, 25 ½ inches in height, 26 ½ inches in skull circumference, and 3 inches in length of face, and which in many cases light eyes and ``dudley" noses, and in all cases only slight projection of underjaw and tails which reached to the hocks, represented the original English Alaunt as bred in England and Bordeaux in the years 1151/1411. Whilst the Spanish Bulldog, which only averaged 90 lbs. in weight and 2 ¼ inches in length of face, and which had dark eyes and a black nose and mask, and was well underhung, with a moderately short, crooked-down tail, and the Bulldog's rolling gait represented the English Bulldog as bred in the years 1556/1649, when the Bulldog was just beginning to be a different dog from the Mastiff. To modern eyes both the Dogue de Bordeaux and the Spanish Bulldog would appear of Mastiff type, but the latter definitely less so than the former. This seems clearly due to the fact that the English dogs which began to go out to Spain in 1556 were already much more of Bulldog type than the English dogs which went out to Bordeaux in the years 1151/1411. Before the Bulldog and the Mastiff had begun to emerge from the Alaunt and to take definite shapes of there own. The Spanish dogs which Messrs. George Macquart and Adcock imported in the year's 1840/1873 was very massive, though less so than the Dogue de Bordeaux, and exceedingly muscular and active and they had close-cropped ears. They all appeared to have black muzzles, very deep flews, and large nostrils a deep stop and furrow, and were moderately short in face and considerably underhung. They were well wrinkled, had a deep double dewlap, a very thick and muscular neck, very muscular shoulders, a thick and slightly bowed forearm, large feet, a broad and deep chest, round ribs and strong loins. There was a considerable fall at the shoulders, and from that point the loins began to rise. The hindquarters were small, compared with the forequarters, and considerably higher.

BEAR AND BULL BAITING

During the reigns of Mary, Elizabeth, James I, and Charles I (1553/1649), and again during the reign of Charles II (1600/1635), bull baiting and bear-baiting was the sport of Kings, who used to regale ambassadors and other foreign personages with it. The place built in the shape of a theatre in which bulls and bears were baited, and which was mentioned by Hentzner in 1598, was the Bankside Bear Garden in Southpark, which during the reigns of Queen Elizabeth and James I was kept by Edward Alleyn, the actor and founder of Dulwich School. As has already been shown, it was during the reign of Charles I (in 1631) that the Bulldog was first specifically mentioned by name, and the testimony of Hentzner shows that very large dogs were still used in 1598, and the probability is that exactly same type of dog was in use till the death of Charles II in 1685, because in that monarch's reign they often fought with bears and occasionally with lions at Bankside. So far as I have been able to ascertain the Alaunts of the years 1553/1630 were dogs of an average weight of at least 110 lbs., and the Bulldogs of the years 16311685 weighed on an average 90 lbs., and Mr. Frank Adcock's Toro brought over from Madrid in 1873, was probably a pretty exact counterpart of what the English Bulldog was in the years 1631/1685. At the end of 1685 James II came to the throne, and from that day onwards bull-baiting declined as a fashionable and courtly amusement, though it continued exceedingly popular with the lower classes for another 150 years. At Bankside special kennels were erected for the great dogs that used to bait the bulls and bears. Many of whose relations had been shipped to Spain from 1556 till probably 1650 or even later. But upon the accession of James II, the Bankside Bear Garden was finally disused as a royal appurtenance, and from that time onwards the Bear Garden at Hockey-in-the-Hole, near Clerkenwell Green, was the chief venue of London devotes of the sport, another favorite place being William Well's Bear Garden and Tuttle Fields, Westminster. At these places bull and bear baiting became a very barbarous recreation shunned by the better class of people and which went furthest and fairest in against the bull, or which jumped highest against the bear, the prizes being a guinea or ten shillings or a collar. The rules of bull baiting, as practiced from 1686 till 1835, presupposed a tethered bull or a tethered bear, and the dog was only required to ``pin" the bull, not to throw him, as was sometimes actually done in earlier years, when many of the bulls were unfettered.

THE SMALLER DOG APPEARS

The new system of bull-baiting, as practised from 1686 onwards, favoured an active dog of moderately low stature and of only moderate size, with his nose well-laid back and a protruding underjaw. The great dog of 90 lbs. in weight which had been in vogue when bull-baiting was the sport of Kings, was no longer wanted, whilst the common folk who now had the sport in hand could not afford to rear and keep such huge animals, which would have been a ``white elephant" to them. Much can happen to change any breed of dog in 50 years and by in breeding and breeding with a fixed purpose in view between the years 1686 and 1735, a dog of a definite type and of average weight of 50 lbs. was produced. The dog of 1735 was smaller in skull than the dog of the present day, longer in face, higher at the shoulder, not so wide in front, lighter in bone and body, and less exaggerated in every way, but he was the framework upon which the fin de siecle Bulldog of to-day was built up. And the dog that was gradually evolved in the years 1686/1735, though finally more than 40 per cent lighter than his ancestors of the years 1631/1686, had all the indominable pluck of his ancestors, and was not only the bravest dog but actually the bravest creature on earth, not even expecting the Old English Game Cock. This is an undisputable fact, which was proved time and time again. The dog which was produced in the years 1686/1735, was" the dog for the bull", and it was during those years, and not before then, that he was taught and trained to pin the bull by the nose, and never to attack him in any other place.

As early as 1710 this method of attack became inherited tendency, and even to-day, though bull-baiting was abolished 98 years ago, many Bulldogs still see in cattle their hereditary for, and if a young dog loses his head in a field of cattle he will nearly always try to pin the nearest beast by the nose.By 1735, then, a fixed and definite type of Bulldog had been attained, a courageous, powerful, active dog of an average weight of 50 lbs., very different from the exhibition dog to-day, but nevertheless the groundwork upon which the exhibition dog has been gradually built up.

American Pit Bull Terrier

The American Pit Bull Terrier is a medium-sized dog. It has a short coat and smooth, well-defined muscle structure. Its eyes are round to almond shaped, and its ears are small to medium in length and can be natural or cropped. Females tend to have longer bodies than males, while males have slightly bigger limbs. The tail is thick and tapers to a point. The coat is glossy, smooth, short, and slightly coarse and can be any color. The APBT is a breed that is loyal to friends and family, and friendly to strangers. Proper training can make the dog obedient and have a high desire to please. Without proper guidance, though, the breed can become stubborn, and at times, aggressive. A study done by the CDC showed that "pit bull" breeds accounted for the majority of dog related fatalities in the United States between 1979 and 1996, though the study admits some limitations in its data.[4] The American Temperament Testing Society shows a pass percentage of 84.3% for American Pit Bull Terrier.[5] Still, a firm, even hand and early obedience training are best. They generally have a lot of energy and high prey drive; they need exercise and stimulation in order to channel their energy properly and not become frustrated, bored, and destructive. American Pit Bull Terriers have historically been and are still used for dog fighting. Although dog fighting is illegal in the United States and many other countries, it is still practiced, and is usually accompanied by gambling. In the United States, participating in dog fighting is a felony in 49 states, and United States federal law prohibits interstate transport of dogs for fighting purposes.[11] Due to the history of dog fighting seizures and fatal maulings, APBTs can often end up in the care of animal control services. Since they are perceived as dangerous, pit bulls are often euthanized. Attempts to euthanize solely based on breed have been banned by U.S. law.[12] In the United Kingdom, the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991 prohibits the sale or breeding of "any dog of the type known as pit bull terrier." Some jurisdictions in the Australian states of Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria, and in the United States, have similar breed-specific legislation, varying from a total ban on ownership to muzzling in public. Similarly, in Ontario, Canada, the ownership of APBTs has been banned in the Dog Owners' Liability Act. As of August 29, 2005, the "owning, breeding, transferring, importing or abandoning" of APBTs is illegal in Ontario, Canada, given that it was found that the APBT breed "poses a danger to the public."[13] Beginning in 1993, after three serious incidents, it was forbidden in The Netherlands to breed pit bulls or pit bull-like dogs. Pit bulls and pit bull-like dogs without a FCI pedigree could be impounded by authorities and put to sleep. However, in June 2008, the Dutch government said it would lift the breed specific ban on pit bulls because of its ineffectiveness at reducing bite incidents.[14] It is illegal in Miami-Dade County, Florida to own or keep Pit Bull Dogs, American Staffordshire Terriers, Staffordshire Bull Terriers, or any other dog that substantially conforms to any of these breeds’ characteristics.

During the nineteenth century, dog fanciers in England, Ireland, and Scotland began to experiment with crosses between bulldogs and terriers, looking for a dog that combined the gameness of the terrier with the strength and athleticism of the bulldog.[1] In the late 1800s to early 1900s, two clubs were formed for the specific purpose of registering APBTs: the United Kennel Club and the American Dog Breeder's Association. The United Kennel Club was founded with the registration of an American Pit Bull Terrier and was the first registry to recognize the breed. The dog was bred first to bait bulls and for dog fighting.[2] When baiting bulls was deemed inhumane, dogfighting became more popular, and the APBT was used in the sport. With time, the dogs became more commonly used as house pets due to their friendliness towards people, but also as a way of protecting homes against crime.[3] The dog was used during World War I and World War II as a way of delivering messages on the battlefield.[3] A resurgence in dog fighting in recent years has caused an increase in pit bull terrier breeding. The name "Staffordshire Terrier" was adopted by some owners as a way of distancing the breed from a name with a stigma, and was recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1936. Later, the word "American" was added to reduce confusion with its smaller British cousin, the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. Once an extremely popular family dog in the United States (for example, the dog in The Little Rascals movies and in Buster Brown was an APBT), the American Pit Bull Terrier's popularity began to decline in the United States following World War II in favor of other breeds.

Bulldog Campeiro

Chiamato anche Bulldog Brasiliano sembrerebbe discendere dal Bulldog Inglese importato in Brasile del quale dovrebbe mantenere molte caratterisitiche morfologiche e comportamentali, altezza intorno ai 50 cm. e peso sui 40 kg.

Official Standard BRAZILIAN CANINE ORGANIZATION (CBKC) Official Standard of the Breed CAMPEIRO BULLDOG Classification on CBKC: Group 11 - Breeds not recognized by FCI Standard CBKC NR 8 Country of Origin: Brazil Original Name: Campeiro Bulldog Utilization: Shepherd and guard Working Evaluation: Not regulated Sergio Meira Lopes de Castro - President of CBKC Paulo José Ramos de Azevedo - President of Canine Council Colaborator: Ralf Schein Bender. BRIEF HISTORY OF CAMPEIRO BULLDOG : Campeiro Bulldog has its origin on Bulldogs brought to Brazil by European Immigrants since the 16th Century. As cattle raising have for long been very active in the southern Brazil, bulldogs were frequently used to capture "wild" cattle extensively raised in the hostile field environment nearby native forests. These dogs participated in long journeys to capture lost cattle but were mainly maintained in slaughterhouses where they were especially useful for holding furious bulls whenever necessary. Working Bulldogs had an almost natural selection, as those very low-sized animals had disadvantages when traveling long distances and when immobilizing bulls by pulling and holding them. On the other hand, those excessively tall bulldogs resulting from crossing with other breeds used to loose catching instinct and precision of movements becoming especially vulnerable to horn and backward kick. How should be the desirable dog? Body should be strong with a very wide head and powerful jaw. Snout should be wide and strong but not so short as in Modern English Bulldog nor so long as in Bullmastiff in order to enable it to bite and hold bulls independently of its weight. The dog should have calm and watching temperament with an accentuated warrior spirit and loyalty. This temperament should be so obstinate to overcome limits and so controlled that always maintain obedience to commands from the shepherd. Thus, CAMPEIRO BULLDOG was born "naturally selected in the drudgery". GENERAL APPEARANCE: Dog with a powerful and strong physical constitution indicating strength and agility. UTILIZATION: they were used to capture "wild" cattle during long journeys and/or holding them when necessary in slaughterhouses. They are very versatile dogs having aptness to guard and combat very well balanced. They are dogs selected in the field controlling bulls and protecting the propriety of the farmer against any intruder. Furthermore, they act as shepherd dogs as well as bull controllers throwing and holding any escaping cattle. They use to live together in packs of hounds respecting the wish of their owners. TEMPERAMENT: This extremely courageous dog is very loyal to the owner and docile with the rest of the family. Very versatile and well adapted dog, is calm (do not bark a lot), reserved with strangers and jealous with the master. It is companion, vigilant and confident with a well developed warrior spirit. They love children and accept integrally commands being submissive and loyal to its master. HEAD: large and broad with strong jaw. Skull: very broad and high. Muzzle: broad and short with approximately 1/3 of the skull length. Not as short as in Modern English Bulldog nor as long as in Bullmastiff. Ears: small to medium, rose or button ears set high and wide. EYES: almond-shaped to round as darker as possible. LIPS: the chops or "flews" should be semi-pendulous with well-rounded cheeks. JAWS AND BITE: the lower jaw turned up and protruding (it should project considerably in front of the upper jaw). Very strong bite. NECK: very strong (muscular) and of moderated size. FOREQUARTERS :Shoulders: very broad, muscular and slightly sloping. The forelegs should be stout, well boned and straight. Font feet may be straight or slightly out-turned. HINDQUARTERS: broad and muscular with well developed second thigh denoting strength and power. Hocks should be slightly bent (rear legs neither pigeon-toed or cow hocked). BODY: back moderately short with a light rise from the shoulders to the rump. Chest: wide and deep with well rounded rips. TAIL: normally Campeiro Bulldog already born with a shorter (not reaching beyond the hocks) and crooked tail. In cases of long straight tails docked is recommended. COAT: smooth flat and medium texture. Short coat. All colors are allowed. Dominance of fawn (all variations) and brindle (red, gray or black), as solid or with white. Completely white dogs have been occasionaly born (although not desirable for an outside working dog exposed to intense sun rays). Full black dog have not been recorded. SIZE: ideal height at the top of the shoulders (withers) between 48 and 58 cm (18.9 and 22.8 inches) and ideal weight for males and females between 35 and 45 kg (77,2 and 99,2 lb). FAULTS: any deviation on the terms of this standard should be considered as fault and penalized according to its gravity. OBSERVATIONS: Campeiro Bulldog is an extremely rustic dog, free from health problems commonly present in Modern English Bulldog as they are breeds skilled for distinct functions. While Modern English Bulldog is a company dog ideal for apartments and with a marvelous appearance, Campeiro Bulldog is a dog ideal for work and guard. NOTE: male dogs should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

1 - Old English Bulldog Old Bulldog of Great Britain, or "Old Times Bulldog", a working dog for catching livestock and protecting proprieties, became already extinct in the early 19th Century. Qualities such as functionality, rusticity and agility made this breed very attractive and admired worldwide. Such characteristics, not present anymore in Modern English Bulldog, are the main ingredients for several attempts to "rescue" this old molosser by Europeans and North Americans. Olde English Bulldogge, Australian Bulldog, American Bulldog, Olde Victorian Bulldogge, Original English Bulldogge, Alapaha Blueblood Bulldog, among others, are examples of these tentative to rebirth the Old English Bulldog. In such cases, or desirable characteristics had been "re-created" due to breeding programs involving modern breeds that carry the blood of Old Bulldog of Great Britain (which is the case of "Olde English Bulldogge", for instance) or some specific and desirable features such as larger size and better health have been incorporated to the modern bulldog by additional breeding (as the example of Australian Bulldog) The main distinction between Campeiro Bulldog and these attempts to re-birth the Old Times Bulldog refers to the presence of the original "genetic seed" still virtually "untouched" on those bulldogs encountered in the mountains from the south Brazil by Mr. Ralf Bender. These rescued bulldogs were selected and submitted to an intensive and responsible breeding program in order to maintain those original bulldog features from their ancestors still alive. This includes not only external morphological characteristics but also temperament and physical aptness to control bulls through long journeys in the field. Kennel Molosso di Jerivà - Site da raça BULDOGUE CAMPEIRO, resgate do antigo buldogue inglês - cão de guarda e trabalho (lida com gado). Canil Molosso di Jerivá, especializado na criação e desenvolvimento desta nova raça brasileira reconhecida pela CBKC, possui plantel selecionado e ninhadas frequentes.

2 - Kennel Caodominio - Agora reformulado oferecemos aos adoradores do Buldogue Campeiro O Site Oficial da Raça. Trazendo informações e notícias, este novo portal tem o intuito de oferecer aos criadores e amantes do BC novidades sobre o berço da raça no Rio Grande do Sul, com as linhagens mais puras e originais, o ponto de partida para todos criadores. O Buldogue Campeiro é o resultado de anos de sacrifício e dedicação ao resgate de uma raça. O Canil Cãodominio- Berço da Raça - Agradece a todos criadores, especialistas. veterinários el oucos por Buldogues, que ao longo dos anos nos ajudaram. E convocamos o apoio de quem estiver disposto a contribuir com o site, mandando artigos, notícias, eventos, novos criadores, canís, enfim tudo sobre o Buldogue Campeiro. Damos as Boas Vindas a todos.

Razze Bulldog

Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog

History

Is a very rare breed, similar to the American Bulldog there are about 120 Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldogs worldwide, developed in the Alapaha River region of southern Georgia by the Lane family of Rebecca, to preserve the "plantation dog" from extinction. The Lane's breeding program started in the late 1800s. The Alapaha would be a descendent of the original Bulldogs that came to the U.S.A. in the 1700s. The American Research Foundation recognize the breed from 1986 in the working dog category. From 1986 to 2001, ARF has registered under 700 Alapahas.This bulldog-type dog breed descends by Otto the Buck Lane's dog.I n 1943 Buck Lane was killed by a train and his granddaughter, Lana Lou Lane, continued the breeding program until her death on July 20th 2001. Later, Mrs. Vivian Lane sold her daughter's kennel.

Appearance

Displaying an unexaggerated and well-developedl bulldog type. Descriptions of its size vary greatly, calling for males anywhere from 65 to 90 pounds (32 to 45 kg) standing 19 to 26 inches (48 to 73.5 cm) at the withers, females smaller at 60 to 70 pounds (22.5 to 41 cm). Ears and tail are natural, with no cropping or docking. Colors of the Alapaha are varied, typically white or different shades of black, grey, red, fawn, brindle, brown, buckskin, or mahogany, always with white markings; some dogs are piebald spotted.

Temperament

The ABBB is described as trainable, dutiful, and responsible, with impressive capabilities as a guardian of family and property, but aggressive only in defense of these. Could be used as a guard-dog, watch-dog or pet-dog.

Bulldog Inglese di Razza Pura VS Standard di Razza

In questo articolo cercheremo di comprendere le ragioni che hanno portato alla continua diffusione di notizie incomplete o false riguardanti il Bulldog Inglese e la conseguente relazione molto ambigua che, attualmente, contrappone la Razza Pura, i diretti discendenti di Rosa, con quello che dovrebbe essere lo Standard di Razza che, incomprensibilmente, non descrive la Razza Originale del Lincolnshire alla quale dovrebbe appartenere. L' altro giorno ho partecipato ad una giornata di studio organizzata da illustri Ricercatori, famosi Docenti Universitari. Ritengo che non sara stato facile, per degli scienziati, comprendere le ragioni per le quali un Cane debba essere costituzionalmente malato, senza possibilita' di intervenire efficacemente tramite la Scienza Veterinaria, se non a livello diagnostico o sintomatico, per il fatto che questi errori o patologie sono previste, anzi, prescritte nello Standard di Razza. Ritengo importante, comunque, lavorare con l' obiettivo, minimo, iniziale, della divulgazione di informazioni per quanto possibile testate e veritiere. Vorrei continuare la discussione per cercare di comprendere le ragioni che hanno portato a questa situazione ed all' attuale Standard di Razza ( Luglio del 2008 ). Alcuni siti internet, ad esempio, affermano erroneamente che lo Standard di Razza del Bulldog Inglese sia rimasto quasi invariato dal 1860 ad oggi ( a mio giudizio invariato nella apparenza, non nella sostanza ). Questa affermazione, ad esempio, risulterebbe discutibile in rapporto con i risultati delle mie ricerche. Sappiamo che Rosa, raffigurata in un famoso dipinto, era parte integrante dello Standard. Rosa appare proporzionata, con ossa leggere, collo normale, il ventre retratto, la coda lunga, le orecchie portate verso l' alto e con una linea dorsale molto arquata, inoltre i miei studi, hanno permesso di studiare il suo bellissimo movimento apparentemente piu simile a quello di un Levriero che non a quello prescritto dallo Standard attuale. Quindi lo Standard attuale non rispecchia lo Standard Originale, ma risulta ben differente. Logicamente sembrerebbe, che, in dato momento alcune caratteristiche di Rosa siano diventati difetti, mentre alcuni errori compiuti nella Selezione da certi Allevatori, probabilmente considerati inevitabili, siano diventati pregi. Cerchiamo di capire come questo sia stato possibile. Le ipotesi possono essere due:

1) tutti gli Allevatori di Bulldog in Inghilterra allevavano quello che era considerato il Cane Migliore del Mondo, Cani perfetti come Rosa, bellissimi e senza problemi di Salute, ma, per ragioni inesplicabili, se non riconducibili all' Odio, alla Gelosia oppure alla Pazzia, a Londra i membri del Kennel Club stabilivano spontaneamente e volontariamente che il Cane Bulldog ideale dovesse essere un Cane Displasico, affetto da Sindrome Respiratoria Brachicefala, che non dovesse piu essere in grado di Riprodursi o di Partorire e che dovesse morire quasi sempre per morte accidentale, in perfette condizioni di Salute, con un qualsiasi sbalzo di Temperatura, per Colpo di Caldo. Stabilirono, ad esempio, che il movimento e la posizione degli arti posteriori per essere corretti dovessero essere tali da provocare insopportabili carichi sulle articolazioni dell' Anca e del Ginocchio. Quindi i Risultati nelle Esposizioni Canine seguirono le indicazioni del Kennel Club ed i pregi divennero difetti, mentre i difetti divennero pregi, costringendo gli Allevatori Inglesi a non essere Allevatori ed i Veterinari a non essere Veterinari, per Allevare, tra mille difficolta, un Cane, volutamente ed inspiegabilmente, malato.

2) NON tutti gli Allevatori di Bulldog in Inghilterra allevavano il Cane Migliore del Mondo, un gruppo di questi Allevatori molto influente a Londra, effettuarono, per varie ragioni, Selezioni errate, Per considerazioni squisitamente commerciali questi allevatori decisero di utilizzare la propria influenza per modificare i risultati nelle Esposizioni Canine e lo Standard di Razza. Gli altri Allevatori Inglese si ritrovarono con un Cane bellissimo, ma perdente nelle Esposizioni e sempre piu' lontano dallo Standard richiesto. Gli Allevatori influenti a Londra, quindi, per essere sicuri di avere la meglio sopra un Cane nettamente superiore trasformarono via via i pregi del Bulldog di Razza Pura in difetti da evitare. Essendo, il Bulldog Originale, invincibile dal punto di vista Morfologico e, quindi, della Qualita del Movimento, il Kennel Club venne costretto a valorizzare, nello Standard di Razza e nelle Esposizioni Canine, le dimensioni della Testa , mentre gli Arti diventavano necessariamente troppo corti per giustificare il giudizio limitato al Cane Immobile osservato frontalmente. Ad esempio, considerando che Rosa porta le Orecchie alte e che nell' ultima fotografia di un Bulldog Inglese Puro, 1910, le Orecchie sono a bottone, le Orecchie divennero esclusivamente a forma di Rosa, la coda presente nei due esemplari, lunga, divenne un difetto mentre quella a cavaturacciolo, causa di tanti problemi, che, seguendo il mio ragionamento, doveva essere assolutamente assente del Bulldog Inglese venne, invece, ammessa nello Standard. Il continuo svalorizzamento delle Qualita di Movimento possedute dal Bulldog Originale contrapposto alla eccessiva valorizzazione delle dimensioni della Testa portarono inevitabilmente alla selezione di Cani Displasici o con Sindrome Brachicefala. In conclusione, dai miei studi, risulterebbe che lo Standard di Razza del Bulldog Inglese sia stato notevolmente modificato nella sostanza piu' che nell' apparenza, dal 1860 ad oggi. Queste modifiche, sostanzialmente piu' che apparentemente, perseguirebbero l' obiettivo e, comunque, andrebbero inequivocabilmente nel senso di allontanare sempre piu' il Bulldog di Razza Pura o Lincolnshire Bulldog dallo Standard di Razza per avvantaggiare il Bulldog di Londra, tutto questo, per ragioni, apparentemente, di interesse personale o, comunque, definibili commerciali senza, infatti, conseguire obiettivi puramente cinofili. Di conseguenza il mio ragionamento induce a concludere che le variazione allo Standard di Razza furono causate dalle pressioni compiute da influenti Allevatori, i quali, consci di avere sbagliato la Selezione, decisero di rimediare ai propri errori non incrociando con i migliori Riproduttori, ma effettuando notevoli pressioni al livello delle Esposizioni Canine e dei Clubs per riuscire, in questa maniera, a mantenere la gestione commerciale della Razza Bulldog a discapito dei migliori Allevatori, dei Cani e degli Acquirenti, necessitando, infine, per mantenere questa situazione, la diffusione di notizie incomplete se non assolutamente false al livello dell' opinione comune. In questa maniera gli attori, gli ideatori delle false informazioni, sarebbero gli Allevatori influenti consci di avere errato la Selezione, i principali veicoli utilizzati dovrebbero essere i risultati delle Esposizioni Canine, mentre, per quanto riguarda le occultazioni di informazioni oppure quelle parziali o incomplete, in questa categoria potremmo includere le modifiche che vennero introdotte nello Standard di Razza Originale, i principali veicoli utilizzati dovrebbero essere i Clubs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Origine della razza

Tanto tempo fa, grazie alla selezione effettuata in alcune regioni orientali si ottenne una varietà di cane di taglia gigante, con la testa grossa e il muso più corto.
I primi Molossi erano cani di taglia gigantesca, con le ossa molto robuste, dotati di una forza incomparabile e di un coraggio illimitato.
Si diffusero in diverse regioni orientali.
Nel secolo VI a. c. furono introdotti in Europa, compreso le Isole Britanniche, grazie alla fiorente rete di rotte commerciali stabilite dai Fenici.
Questo mastino era molto ricercato per la sua ferocia e per il suo insuperabile coraggio, fu incrociato con i cani locali e, i britannici, svilupparono una specie di molossoide chiamato "Pugnace Britanni" di estrema ferocia utilizzato dagli abitanti dell'isola anche per lottare contro gli invasori Romani.
Nonostante siamo molto lontani dall'attuale bulldog inglese conoscendo lo straordinario valore che avevano questi molossi lottatori possiamo capire come si è formato il carattere e la storia di questa razza che è diventata il simbolo e l'orgoglio di una nazione.

 

Storia della razza

 

Bondogge o Bolddogge, più tardi Banddogge, diverse parole sono state usate prima di arrivare al nome Bulldog.
"The time when screech owls cry and Banddogges howl and spirit walk and ghost break up their graves."Il Banddogges fu menzionato da William Shakespeare(1564-1616) nell'atto 1 scena VI dell'opera teatrale Enrico VI. Il nome Bulldog appare per la prima volta nel 1632 in una lettera in cui Prestwick Eaton,dalla Spagna, chiede a George Willingham due buoni esemplari per fare un regalo. Già molto tempo prima, nel regno di Enrico II,intorno al 1133,vi era il costume di organizzare lotte contro i tori. Dal momento che all'epoca i macellai procedevano loro stessi alla macellazione dei manzi che poi vendevano,si era diffusa l'usanza di far aggredire i bovini da macellare dai propri cani all'aperto in modo che le genti potessero vedere la qualità delle carni. La prima notizia certa è dell'anno 1209 all'epoca di Giovanni Senzaterra.
Il signore della città Lord Stamford passeggiando sulle mura del suo castello vide due tori che lottavano per il possesso di una femmina.I cani di un macellaio si precipitarono sopra uno dei due tori riuscendo ad abbatterlo dopo una lotta feroce.
Lord Stamford gustò tanto lo spettacolo che donò il terreno dove era avvenuto il combattimento all'unione dei macellai a patto che tutti gli anni un giorno prima delle sei settimane che precedono il natale l'unione dei macellai riuscissero ad organizzare un combattimento simile a quello a cui aveva assistito

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Chiamato Bull-Baiting, questo combattimento tra i cani dei macellai e i tori infuriati divenne molto popolare in Inghilterra.
Si scommettevano somme di denaro e la passione per il Bull-Baiting si diffuse in tutti i ceti sociali cosi' come si diffusero le arene destinate a questo spettacolo, ne esistono ancora tracce al giorno d'oggi.
Selezionato per ferocia e coraggio il bulldog divenne un animale ossessivo per combattività e sanguinarietà.Il toro era legato alle corna con una corda lunga 23 metri fissata al centro di una arena di forma circolare e si difendeva cercando di colpire l'addome del cane.Il bulldog sviluppò la tecnica di avvicinarsi quasi strisciando per evitare le corna del toro.
Spesso i bulldog colpiti erano lanciati dal toro verso l'alto e i Bullots(i proprietari dei cani),per non perdere la scommessa, ammortizzavano la caduta con i grembiuli di cuoio tipici dei macellai o con canne di bambù di modo che il bulldog anche se ferito, a volte con le viscere esposte, potesse riprendere la lotta.
I bulldog furono i cani più adeguati per questa lotta perchè oltre alla tenacia e a una estrema ferocia vi era una incredibile resistenza al dolore.
Dirigevano l'attacco al muso del toro e rimanevano in presa fino a quando la bestia cadeva esausta e insanguinata.
Come si vede in antichi dipinti altre razze con il muso più lungo furono utilizzate per questo combattimento, però attaccavano il toro alle orecchie ferendosi con le corna quando il toro scuoteva la testa.
I bulldog in quel periodo avevano un muso di media lunghezza, ma mai un muso lungo, esibendo una testa grande in virtù della discendenza dal Mastino Asiatico.

 


Comparato con le altre razze il bulldog rappresentava tipicità distinte possedendo alcune caratteristiche molto particolari.
La sua tecnica di attacco e il suo coraggio nel combattimento lo portarono e conquistare grande fama divenendo la razza esclusiva per la pratica di questo sport, conquistando illustri personaggi come i re Giacomo I,Riccardo III e Carlo I.La regina Elisabetta era appassionata di Bull-Baiting
e offriva questo spettacolo come parte dell'intrattenimento agli ambasciatori e ai monarchi dei regni vicini.
Nel 1795, nella città di Liverpool, si realizzò uno spettacolo in una diga secca in cui alla fine del combattimento sia i vincitori che i vinti venivano sommersi dall'acqua.
Col passare dei secoli si cercò di formare sempre più il fisico e il temperamento di questi cani al combattimento creando una progressiva mutazione fisica e fissando geneticamente anomalie che risultavano adeguate al Bull-Baiting.
Le zampe divennero più corte per strisciare meglio e per afferrarsi più efficentemente alle corna del toro, aumentò il prognatismo del muso per assicurare una presa più forte.
Le rughe sopra il naso assicuravano lo scorrimento del sangue del toro in modo da non impedire la respirazione.
Il cane poteva rimanere preso al toro per molto tempo e respirando senza difficoltà.
I più resistenti al dolore, i più coraggiosi e i più feroci furono selezionati per la riproduzione.
Generazione su generazione andava accentundosi il profilo di un cane che guadagnava fama in tutto il mondo di ineguagliabile ferocia.
Questa selezione attraverso i secoli permise di ottenere un cane con caratteristicha fisiche e psichiche eccezionali.
Quello che si ottenne fu un cane di forza straordinaria rispetto alla taglia.Nel Bull-Baiting che si era visto attraverso i secoli un bulldog alla volta lottava contro un toro e si scommetteva sul tempo che il bulldog avrebbe impiegato ad abbattere il toro.Con il tempo le regole del Bull-Baiting furono modificate, fu aumentato il numero dei bulldog in combattimento e si scommettteva su quale fosse il primo che riuscisse a mordere la testa del toro e a rimanere fermamente in presa.
Il combattimento tra animali è stato vietato in Olanda nel 1698 e in Francia nel 1834.
Gli inglesi si resero conto che la carneficina ingiustificata che questo sport rappresentava non era più ammissibile quindi, dopo molte polemiche, il governo inglese promulgò, nel 1835, una legge in cui si proibivano tutti i combattimenti tra animali. In Inghilterra il combattimento tra i cani aveva preso il posto del bull-baiting ed era molto diffuso, dopo la promulgazione di questa legge il numero di bulldog diminui' drasticamente.
La razza fini' in mano a banditi e male intenzionati che proseguirono i combattimenti in clandestinità.
Parallelamente autentici appassionati amanti della razza cominciarono a selezionare la razza per riscattarla da questa triste situazione.La razza non era remunerativamente interessante, però l'amore per questa e per il patrimonio genetico che si stava perdendo motivò questa reazione.
I decenni seguenti furono utilizzati in un paziente lavoro di selezione dei bulldog che avessero un carattere equilibrato, docile e sicuro.
Furono esclusi dalla riproduzione quei cani aggressivi , nevrotici o incostanti a favore di esemplari con una buona indole.
II bulldog si stava trasformando in una razza sicura e adeguata a convivere con le persone.
Il carattere del bulldog fu gradualmente rimodellato.
La prima esposizione di cani venne organizzata in Ingilterra nel 1859.


Gli inglesi furono i pionieri della cinofilia mondiale e il bulldog era al centro di studi e attenzioni quando , nel 1864, per descrivere come avrebbe dovuto essere un bulldog, Samuel Wickens scrisse il primo standard di una razza canina nel mondo, usando lo pseudonimo Philo-Kuon, poichè in quella epoca era considerato vergognoso scivere sopra i cani.
Nel 1865, un anno dopo la redazione di Philo-Kuon un gruppo di allevatori fondarono il Bulldog Club, il primo club dedicato a una razza canina.The Kennel fu fondato solo otto anni dopo nel 1873.
The Bulldog Club(il secondo club di bulldog) chiuse le sue attività e nel 1875 fu fondato il Bulldog Club Incorporated(il terzo club di bulldog) che ancora oggi coordina le attività della razza in Inghilterra fra cui i tre più importanti campionati: Crufts,Bulldog of the Year e Bulldog Club Incorporated.Nel 1892 venne fondato a Manchester il British Bulldog Club.

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La prima esposizione canina fu organizzata nei giorni 28 e 29 giugno del 1859 a Newcastle-on-Tyne in Inghilterra ed era riservata alle razze Pointer e Setter.
La prima esposizione in cui furono ammessi a partecipare i bulldog avvenne nei giorni 3 e 4 del dicembre 1860.
Il primo bulldog a conseguire il titolo di campione fu King Dick, nato nel 1858 di proprietà di J. Lamphier e vincitore nell'esposizione di Birmingham del 1861. .J.Lamphier, nel 1861, ispirandosi a King Dick scrive il primo abbozzo di standard.
Discendente di King Dick fu il leggendario Crib giudicato prossimo alla perfezione.Sempre vincitore nelle esposizioni fu venduto negli Stati Uniti dove mori', l'anno seguente, di polmonite.
Altri discendenti di King Dick che si distinsero nelle esposizioni furono Romanie e Michael anche se entrambi fecero una tragica fine.Romanie mori' di asafissia nel treno ritornando da una esposizione.Michael,venduto in Francia arrivò a Parigi esattamente lo stesso giorno in cui veniva assediata la città morendo in quella tumultuosa occasione.
Basandosi su King Dick e su Crib, aiutato da altri esperti, Samuel Wickens, sotto lo pseudonimo di Philo Kuon, che significa amico del cane(cinofilo), scrisse un secondo standard che dopo essere stato approvato dal Bulldog Club, che si era costituito nel frattempo, fu pubblicato nel 1864.
Il primo bulldog a essere iscritto al libro delle origini fu Adamo nato nel 1863.

Quando il bulldog si trasformò in un cane da esposizione molte persone iniziarono ad allevarlo attratte da un guadagno facile.
La selezione di esemplari sempre più tipici superò la normalità ottenendo esemplari con caratteristiche ipertipiche: teste enormi, arti cortissimi e condotti nasali inesistenti.Il bulldog divenne una caricatura di se stesso e iniziò a presentare gravi problemi.Si vedevano animali cosi' deformati che neanche volendo erano in grado di effettuare le passeggiata con il padrone.
Gli autentici amanti della razza si ribellarono contro questa moda del cane ipertipico.
Fra le due fazioni che si formarono prevalse la via di mezzo.Si optò per una razza dotata di una costituzione fisica senza eccessi di nessun tipo

Australian Bulldog - Aussie Bulldog

 

Country of Origin: Australia

 

Breed Status: The Australian Bulldog is, as of yet, unrecognized by any national kennel clubs, but does have its own national breed club in Australia. Distribution: The Australian Bulldog is, as of the time of this writing, rare outside of Australia, but can be found in slight numbers in Tahiti, Guam, and the continental United States.

Etymology: The Australian Bulldog takes its name from its country of origin.

Other Names: Aussie Bulldog

Breed History: While some sources state that the Australian Bulldog was created in an effort to create a healthier breed of bulldog, this is not quite how things occurred. The very first breeding occurred out of simple curiosity and only later was the goal of a healthier bulldog strived for. During the early 1990s Pip Nobes crossed a male British Bulldog to her husband, Keith’s, pig dog and planned to put another British over the offspring. It was only after she owned two British Bulldogs who had major health problems (these dogs were not bred from) that the focus started to move from curiosity to a motivation to breed a healthier bulldog. She continued to put another British Bulldog over the original progeny and it was around this time that she came into contact with Noel Green, who besides breeding dogs for the purpose of pig hunting, was also in the business of buying and selling dogs. The third British Bulldog she used, Maxlyn Hercules Wrath or Boris, was mated to not only Mrs. Nobes’ dogs, but also over Mr. Green’s quarter British Bulldog pig dog Dish. All the original lines came from three lines of Mrs. Nobes (Penny – pig dog, Chip – boxer/bulldog, Soda – pig dog) and the one line of Mr. Green (Dish – pig dog and her daughter Miss Margarita by Boris). A word here about the use of pig dog bitches here for anybody throwing their hands up in horror – keep in mind successful pig dogs are extremely healthy, if they are not able to work they are no good and will not be tolerated by pig dog breeders for work or breeding. They have to be able to run with other dogs and therefore any dogs prone to constantly fighting each other are not tolerated and they have to be extremely loyal to their owners. All valuable traits in anyone’s language. Pig dogs are mixed breed dogs incorporating all sorts of breeds used for the purpose of hunting feral pigs. At that time Mrs. Nobes read a chapter on the Olde English Bulldogge breeding program written by Carl Semencic, and this enhanced the motivation to breed a healthy bulldog. So the ‘Aussie Bulldog’, a name suggested by Mr. Green, was originally based upon majority blood of the British Bulldog with the large input being from Boxer, Bullmastiff and English Bull Terrier with insignificant portions of other breeds through the pig dogs and further Bullmastiff being added a little later. The original Aussie Bulldog breed record was first begun in May 1997 by Mrs. Nobes and contained the lines from both breeders, Mr. Green and Mrs. Nobes. In June 1999 however the original register was split, mainly over the basis of incorporating American Bulldog blood. In 2001 Mr. Green sold all his Aussie Bulldogs and records to Mr. Joe Cauchi who was breeding with American Bulldogs. (He later started breeding Aussies again and keeping records via his advertising website UABA). Mrs. Nobes, not including American Bulldog blood into her lines, started using the more formal name of ‘Australian Bulldog’. In October 2004, a foundation group formed the Australian Bulldog Society Inc., a properly constituted incorporated organization, and open to enthusiasts of all lines of this new breed. - see also History on www.australianbulldogs.com Appearance: The Australian Bulldog is a thickset, medium sized breed whose health is more important than its appearance. Males stand from 17 to 19 inches (43.18 to 48.26 cm) tall and weigh from 61.73 to 77.16 pounds (28 to 35 kg). Females stand from 16 to 19 inches (40.64 to 48.26 cm) and weigh from 52.91 to 66.14 pounds (24 to 30 kg). The head is large while still being proportional to the body. The muzzle is broad and while short, remains long enough to not interfere with breathing. The skin across the nose forms loose folds but is not excessively wrinkled. The Australian Bulldog may possess a bite that ranges from level to undershot. The low-set eyes are wide and may be of any color, although blue eyes are considered undesirable. The small to moderate sized ears are wide-set and may be either rose or button. The moderate length neck is thick and deep. Loose skin forms a small dewlap on both sides of the neck. The chest is broad and deep. The ribs are well sprung and deep. The back is short and straight. The forelegs are wide set but still under the body and straight. The hindquarters are muscular. The feet are round and compact. The tail is high-set, thick at the root, and slightly rounds down. A long or short straight tail, crank tail or pump-handle tail is acceptable, as is a screw tail, although a tight screw tail is undesirable. The coat is short, smooth, and tight to the body. The Australian Bulldog may occur in any brindle, solid white, pied, solid red, fawn, or fallow. Personality and Uses: The Australian Bulldog has been used solely as a calm breed of companion. This is due not only to their healthy nature but also because of their loyal and affectionate disposition. The Australian Bulldog is a breed that needs human attention to stay happy. While the breed loves activity, it is just as happy relaxing. Individuals within the breed may get into the occasional fight with strange dogs. The Australian Bulldog can never be considered as a guard dog because of their friendly nature, it is said that they would be likely to wag their tails in joy as burglars enter their home. The breed is not known for wandering.

 

American Bulldog

The American Bulldog is an athletic, temperamentally sound medium to large sized dog that possesses great strength, agility and confidence. The expression should reflect intelligence and alertness. The sturdy and powerful yet compact frame is characteristically stockier and heavier boned in the males and more refined in the females. Some aloofness with strangers and assertiveness towards other dogs is accepted. However, an American Bulldog should not be excessively timid, shy or aggressive towards man and preferably not overly aggressive with other dogs. Due to its distinctive physical and mental characteristics along with its natural desire to be the total companion and working dog, an American Bulldog should never be confused with uniquely different breeds such as the American Staffordshire Terrier or the American Pit Bull Terrier.

Size-General: Males should range from 24 to 27 inches at the withers and weigh between 90 and 110 pounds. Females should range from 22 to 25 inches at the withers and weigh between 70 and 90 pounds. Weight should be proportional to height and body type. A dog should be well conditioned and not overweight or underweight. Standard: A leaner and more athletic dog in appearance. Classic: A larger and more powerful dog in appearance.

Color: Solid or varying degrees of white, all shades of brindle, brown, red, or tan are acceptable. Solid black, black and tan, and/or any degree of merle is unacceptable. A full black mask is not acceptable. **Merle is a dilution of overall body color (black or red) with splotches of darker color giving the effect of "merling" or "marbling" not to be confused with Brindle that gives the effect of "striping". Coat: Short, less than one inch in length varying from soft to stiff. Long, feathering, or fuzzy coats are unacceptable.

Head: The head should be relatively large and broad in proportion to the size and overall structure of the dog. It should be flat on top giving a squared appearance. There is a defined furrow between the eyes with a distinct, deep stop. The head is well-muscled throughout with prominent cheeks. An excessively narrow head is unacceptable in both types. Standard: Generally box shaped to wedge in appearance with a slightly shallower stop and less wrinkles. Classic: Generally box shaped to round in appearance with a more definitive stop and heavier wrinkles.

Eyes: The eyes should be round or almond shape, medium sized, and wide set. Black or dark brown is the preferred color. Other colors are accepted. Black eye rim pigment preferred. Crossed and/or nonsymmetrical eyes are unacceptable.

Muzzle: The muzzle should be relatively broad and square. The large jaws are well-muscled, displaying great strength. Lips are full but not pendulous. Black pigment lining lips preferred. An excessively narrow muzzle is unacceptable in both types. Standard: muzzle should be 30% to 40% of the overall length of head. Classic: muzzle should be 25% to 35% of the overall length of head. Teeth: The teeth should number 42 to 44 and large in size is preferred. Working dogs should not be penalized for broken teeth. Should medical removal of teeth be needed, documentation and verification by a veterinarian is requested. Bite: Standard: Reverse scissors is preferred. Moderate underbite, scissors or even bite is acceptable. Classic: Undershot 1/4 to ? inch preferred. Even bite is not preferred. Scissors bite is unacceptable. Both types: Teeth should not be visible when the mouth is closed.

Bulldog Angie

L' Estinzione del Bulldog Inglese

Premetto che questa è un' analisi storica ed in quanto tale cerca di essere aderente ai fatti.Premetto che, con ogni probabilità, l' unico che conosce realmente la Storia dell' Original Pure Breed Bulldog sia il grandissimo Mr. Les Thorpe e che le mie sono, comunque, solo supposizioni. Tra i fattori che potrebbero averne causato l' estinzione, a mio avviso, possiamo ravvisare: la persecuzione scatenata nei suoi confronti durante il 19? secolo, le oggettive difficolt? prodotte dal suo allevamento, le richieste del mercato di bulldog ipertipici,la necessit? di ottenere un maggior numero di cuccioli, anche se non purissimi. Purtroppo anche in questo caso le informazioni che giungono sopra il Bulldog Inglese sono piuttosto contradditorie. Pi? profondamente non credo che movimenti di opinione sicuramente circoscritti riguardanti la eccessiva aggressivit? del Bulldog ( la tendenza a colpire la faccia, ad attaccare altri cani e la sua nota abilit? nel prendere e uccidere i gatti, anche quelli del vicino di casa ), oppure le sue antiche origine asiatiche ( fermenti nazionalisti di fine '800), possano giustificarne la scomparsa anche perchè il Bulldog Classico del 20? secolo cerca , senza riuscirci, di colpire in faccia, cerca, senza riuscirci, di prendere il gatto, e spesso il maschio ? litigioso con altri maschi. Inoltre il Bulldog, osservando i dipinti dell' epoca, non sembra un cane di per s? incontrollabile o troppo aggressivo, ad esempio quando non ? raffigurato con l'uomo. Infatti, in molti disegni dei combattimenti possiamo notare che l'uomo ? il vero protagonista, con la sua eccitazione, del dipinto e del combattimento. Era quindi necessario portare il Bulldog in uno stato di eccitazione assolutamente esasperata per costringerlo a combattere. Il Bulldog, di conseguenza, non doveva essere un cane cattivo, insensibile o incontrollabile, anzi..., però doveva essere facilmente eccitabile e soprattutto doveva essere molto sensibile alla eccitazione del suo padrone. Quindi non direi che ci sia stato un reale sforzo di trasformazione dell' Original Purebred Bulldog da parte degli eccezionali Allevatori Inglesi, che, di solito , raggiungono rapidamente e scientificamente i loro obiettivi. Invece, il Bulldog era classificato come razza da combattimento fino a pochissimi anni or sono. Effettuando una ipotesi molto personale possiamo dire, per certo, che nel 1835 divennero illegali i combattimenti e che l' evoluzione della razza verso un cane sempre pi? performante sub? una brusca interruzione. Sappiamo che Philo Kuon preoccupato per questa rapida involuzione, anche numerica, cerc? di fissare le caratteristiche del Bulldog Originale di Razza Pura utilizzando due famosi dipinti antecedenti il 1835. Sappiamo, inoltre, che, al contrario, il Bulldog era un cane leggendario e che era richiesto in tutto il mondo proprio per la sua abilit? nel combattimento e nel lavoro, a tal punto che formando nuove razze, per essere sicuri del risultato veniva quasi sempre introdotto il migliore sangue Bulldog, come ad esempio nel Boxer. A questo punto risulta pi? plausibile cercare di comprendere le ragioni che portarono, in una tale situazione di mercato, con intense esportazioni, a rimanere, infine, con pochi Riproduttori di valore ( questi non dovevano pi? superare il probante esame del combattimento dove veniva realmente misurata la capacit? di performance così come le medicine introdotte da Philo Kuon: lo Standard di Razza, le Esposizioni Canine e i Giudizi dei Giudici, troppo mutevoli, inadeguate o addirittura inattuabili, si rivelarono, invece, una lama a doppio taglio ) e, soprattutto, ad avere troppo poche femmine che assomigliassero a Rosa. In questa condizione critica potrebbe, a mio giudizio, essersi reso necessario, utilizzare altre fattrici, meno pure oppure di Carlino, Dogue de Bordeuax o Mastiff non con l'obiettivo di trasformare l' antico combattente ( considerato il migliore cane del mondo ), ma al contrario nel tentativo di modificarlo il meno possibile riuscendo a produrre un numero adeguato di cuccioli. Anche per questa per tendenza, a mio avviso, degli abilissimi Allevatori Inglesi il Bulldog Classico non ? cos? differente dal Bulldog Originale come sembrerebbe, nonostante siano passati due secoli. Riassumendo: questa ipotesi di ragionamento individua nel mercato dei Riproduttori e , soprattutto, nelle Esposizioni Canine le principali cause della apparente scomparsa dell' Original Pure Breed Bulldog. Le ipotesi sul perch? e sul per come potrebbero essere infinite, per?, l' unico dato storicamente accertabile, purtroppo, è che dopo 700 anni di Storia con combattimenti, invasioni barbariche, carestie, guerre e malattie furono sufficienti 20 anni di Esposizioni Canine, durante i quali non ci furono n? guerre e n? malattie, per determinarne la estinzione. Magari a Londra qualcuno voleva sottolineare il potere della capitale sul resto dell' Impero, oppure si resero semplicemente conto che il Bulldog rappresentava un ottimo business, ma avendo gi? venduto i riproduttori di qualità e le fattrici simili a Rosa, non rinunciarono al facile guadagno, a discapito degli allevatori delle contee rurali e dei cinofili, strumentalizzando le Esposizioni Canine e lo Standard di Razza, introducendo rapidamente quello che definirei il Bulldog di Londra, esteticamente un bellissimo cane( teoricamente avrebbe dovuto essere nei limiti del possibile assomigliante al Bulldog Originale, per batterlo in Esposizione senza destare sospetti, e, poi, modificare lievemente lo Standard, ma i due cani diventavano sempre più diversi), però era un Bulldog sostitutivo, con un futuro incerto, frutto di una selezione improvvisata o forzatamente affrettata, in definitiva, non abbastanza testato ( perchè dar credito ad un cane poco testato se si possiede il cane più testato del mondo? ), e con un carattere simile. Non a caso il Bulldog di Londra si è vantato fino a pochi anni fa di essere l'unico cane ad avere mantenuto lo stesso spirito e coraggio del Bulldog Originale. Quest' ultimo, battuto e offeso( le Esposizione Canine sancirono la ineluttabile vittoria del Bulldog di Londra e conclusero la Storia del Cane Migliore del Mondo per il quale le stesse erano state create, unitamente allo Standard di Razza), dalla sua stessa brutta copia, essendo colpevole di appartenere agli allevatori delle contee rurali o a qualche cinofilo, si rifugiò nel Lincolnshire ( una regione pianeggiante e molto ventilata), dove la Tradizione ne garantiva la sopravvivenza, dove era incominciata la sua lunga Storia, nel 13° secolo, lontano da Londra, dal Business e dalle Esposizioni Canine.