Bulldog: Mrs. and Mr. Thorpe, maybe the Best Bulldog Breeders of EverI nipoti di Bulldog Tuffnuts Snow AngelBulldog Tuffnuts StrikerRobin Hood Bulldog inglese, anno 1996, Mister Les Thorpe, il Presidente del British Bulldog Club, Allevamento Tuffnuts, con il campione Bulldog Tuffnuts Striker, il nonno di Bulldog Snow Angel StrikerBulldog Lord Byron e Bulldog Tully Bulldog Tully e Bulldog Robin Hood

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Analysis of tear uptake by the Schirmer tear test strip in the canine eye.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the uptake of tears in a Schirmer tear test (STT) in vitro and in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Uptake of fluid by Schirmer tear test strips was studied in vitro by examining fluid uptake over time from an unlimited fluid supply as well as with specific fluid volumes applied to the test strip. Uptake of fluid by Schirmer tear test strips was evaluated in a population of 100 ophthalmologically normal dogs together with a group of 40 dogs with tear film abnormalities such as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) or epiphora. Each animal was given a full ophthalmic examination followed by a standard Schirmer tear test extended over between 3 and 5 min with the STT reading recorded every 5 s and plotted over time. To determine the effect of ocular irritation by the test strip, uptake of tears by test strips was determined before and after topical anesthesia in 20 dogs. RESULTS: In vitro examination of fluid uptake by the STT strips showed an initial rapid uptake followed by a gradual reduction in rate of uptake. Temporal evaluation of STT in vivo showed a similar rapid initial uptake of tear fluid, followed in the majority of cases by a sudden change to a steady state uptake of fluid. The initial gradient was 29.3 +/- 16.9 mm/min followed by a steady state uptake of 5.2 +/- 2.3 mm/min in normal dogs and 1.9 +/- 1.3 mm/min in dogs with KCS. This corresponds to a steady state tear turnover of 7.8 +/- 3.4 microL/min in normal dogs and 2.8 +/- 1.9 microL/min in animals with KCS. Dogs with nasolacrimal blockage and resultant epiphora showed a high initial gradient but final gradients were not statistically different from those of normal dogs. Discussion and conclusions Temporal evaluation of tear uptake by the STT shows substantial differences in rate of tear uptake at different time-points during the period of the test. RESULTS: of this study suggest that the initial rapid rise in STT value represents uptake from the tear lake followed by a slower tear uptake of tears from steady state tear production. Temporal examination of the Schirmer tear test allows a more precise evaluation of tear production than the standard STT measuring tear uptake in 1 min, together with estimation of the contribution to the test strip tear uptake of tears from the residual tear lake volume and those from continual tear production.

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OES, England, UK. doctordlwilliams@aol.com

Williams DL.

Pure Breed Bulldog

The Original Bulldog Club ->> The Bulldog Club of Milan ->>To promote and encourage the Breeding of Pure Bulldogs in all of the World, but more especially In the provinces of England, to Ireland, and in Scotland, in Italy, in Lombardy and in Milan.

Honorary President, Ever and Forever, Mrs. D.N. and Mr. Les Thorpe. Bulldog Club, creato per celebrare la incredibile nascita proprio a Milano, per merito esclusivo di Tuffnuts Bulldogs, in collaborazione con il The Bulldog International Research Center e con Ocobo Show Bulldogs, di quelli che, secondo i più profondi studi mondialmente dimostrabili, risulterebbero essere i più diretti discendenti e, quindi, i legittimi eredi di Rosa, il capostipite della Razza Bulldog, con genealogia integralmente inglese, Lincolnshire, Tuffnuts Ocobo. Il Club si è formato, infatti, nel Dicembre 2004 alla nascita di Tuffnuts Snow Angel Tuffnuts, dedicata al Maggiore L.A. Jackson ed a Dr. Les Cotton, il secondo Original Pure Breed Bulldog, nato a Milano ed in Italia dopo Tully, nato nel 2000, sempre nell ' Allevamento Tuffnuts Snow Angel. Per supportare la razza e tutti coloro che possiedono un Bulldog Inglese. Cucciolate disponibli, affidamento bulldogs, problemi di salute, riproduttori disponibili, etc..Il primo Club che si pone l'obiettivo di selezionare ed allevare anche il Bulldog Originale di Razza Pura, come era fino all' inizio del 20° secolo, con una genealogia completamente inglese, discendente dai più famosi Campioni della Storia.

English Bulldog

The bulldog is a relatively small but stocky breed, with a compact body and short, sturdy limbs. Its shape results in a waddle-like gait. Bulldogs are known for their short muzzles and the saggy skin on their faces, creating the apparent "frown" that has become a trademark of the breed. Bulldogs come in a variety of colors and ideally have a smooth, short coat. The size for a mature male is about 50 pounds (25 kg); that for mature females is about 40 pounds (23.7 kg).

American Bulldog

The American Bulldog is a breed of working dog developed for catching livestock and for protecting property. Though larger in size, they are the closest surviving relative of the Old English Bulldog because they were not altered to as great an extent while in Colonial America as their European cousins. There are generally considered to be two types of American Bulldog, the Johnson type and the Scott type( APBT cross ), named after the breeders who were influential in developing them, John D. Johnson and Allen Scott. These are more commonly known as Classic or Bully type and Standard or Performance type.

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- Lifelong diet restriction and radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis of the hip joint in dogs

- Changes of hip joint congruity after triple pelvic osteotomy in the dog with hip dysplasia.

- Multiple oral dosing of ketoconazole increases dog exposure to ivermectin