WHAT IS FRENCHIES & BULLIES DOMINANCE? Bullies & Frenchies Bulldogs dominance is a rather old-fashioned term not much used by working geneticists anymore which describes a situation in which a bulldog gene is expressed when in a single dose. What this means is you can see the effect of the bulldog gene if the bulldog pup in question only had one parent with the trait. (And it means the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog pup had to have one parent with the trait, but could have had two). There are not a lot of examples of Bullies & Frenchies ulldog clear dominance & even fewer examples of undesirable Bulldog traits that are clearly & simply dominant, because you simply do not breed the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog who has it and it is gone. Ticking is a typical example. You don't want ticking then don't breed, for example, to a Bully & Frenchy Bulldog who has it or at least half your Bulldog pups from a clean white momma with be ticked. Nice part of simple dominance is, if you don't see it you don't have it. Of course, most dominant Bully & Frenchy Bulldog genes are incomplete dominants, or dominants with variable expression or incomplete penetrance. Incomplete
dominance means two Bully & Frenchy Bulldog genes will war over which gets expressed & you can likely see a bit of each in the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog. A simple example is Bully & Frenchy Bulldog white piebald spotting; the dominant gene for self-(full)-coat color cannot cover the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog in pigment when it is not in two doses, so hybrid pups get some white markings (beyond just chest and toes) & two such hybrids bred together can produce Bully & Frenchy Bulldog white pups. Incomplete dominants give you a range & you cannot really control the exact spread of their effects. Variable expression is like incomplete dominance with the gene acting all alone: it is erratic in what it will do. Incomplete penetrance is a population comment. It means that only a certain percentage of the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog population that has the gene will show the effect of the gene. You got it, but only got an 80% chance of ever seeing its effects. In all these cases, for breeders, these are hard to control, and any example of expression must be taken for proof the gene in in the line-to act cautiously & responsiblity-and pedigrees should be so marked. These sorts of complex Bully & Frenchy Bulldog dominance problems cannot be treated as simple dominance is. The Bully & Frenchy Bulldog responsible party may be hard to identify.
WHAT IS FRENCHIES & BULLIES SEX-LINKED? Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Sex or X-linked means the gene is carried on the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog X chromosome. So the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog pattern of inheritance & disease is somewhat different than for autosomal (Bully & Frenchy Bulldog not-sex chromosome) genes. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog X-linked traits are commonly seen only in bulldog males, who got it from their mother (dad gave them a Y-chromosome to make them bulldg males). Likely half their sisters are carriers of the trait just like Bully & Frenchy Bulldog mom was. & you cannot tell which Bully & Frenchy Bulldog sister is clear & which a carrier until they have Bully & Frenchy Bulldog pups. Some forms of Bully & Frenchy Bulldog cryptorchidism (retained testicles) as well as some Bully & Frenchy Bulldog bleeding disorders are thought to be so inherited. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog DCM (cardiomyopathy) looks like it might be inherited as an X-linked, or perhaps a Bully & Frenchy Bulldog mitochrondrial, trait. You don't blame the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog daddy for this, but rather acknowledge that Bully & Frenchy Bulldog momma, unseen, is the author of the bulldog trait in question. (Some Bully & Frenchy Bulldog X-linked traits need another gene for disease to express, like epilepsy: in this case both Bully & Frenchy Bulldog parents may be involved in the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog inheritance pattern; this may well be the case for cardio as well. See "Polygenetic" below.) And don't forget the sisters of any such affected brother are likely carriers as they have one X gene from their momma, so Bully & Frenchy Bulldog pedigrees should be properly marked to reflect this, even though these sisters may never be unwell. There is another peculiar sort of Bully & Frenchy Bulldog inheritance that is purely from the mother called Bully & Frenchy Bulldog mitochondrial DNA inheritance. These are the little dynamos that give cells energy & mammals get all their mitochrondria from their mommas. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Mitochondrial DNA is thought to be behind some forms of cardiomyopathy & in these cases, again, the mother is at fault, not the dad, although both Bully & Frenchy Bulldog sons & daughters would more likely be equally affected.
WHAT IS FRENCHIES & BULLIES RECESSIVE TRAIT? A Bully & Frenchy Bulldog recessive trait is a trait for which two copies of the gene must be present for the trait to be seen. This means that is takes two to tango & both parents had to haave the gene in question. This is very important to understand clearly, as complex dominance & polygenetic traits must be treated (somewhat) as one treats recessive traits to rid a bloodline of a problem or mimimize the effects of a Bully & Frenchy Bulldog trait. Both parents are proven (obligate) carriers if they ever produce one single pup ever with a recessive trait. This means yellow (fawn,sable, red ) or blue/brown dogs out of black animals, yellow eyes from brown eyed animals, missing teeth, cataracts and hernias (in some breeds these are simple recessives), etc. There are many, many traits on this list. So don't point fingers & hide Bully & Frenchy Bulldog pups with recessive traits. Contact the stud owner, mark the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog pedigrees properly & help make progress in Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breed & Bully & Frenchy Bulldog bloodline. Mark both parents as obligate Bully & Frenchy Bulldog carriers, mark all normal Bully & Frenchy Bulldog offspring as 66.66% likely to also be carriers & look for common relatives of the parents who likely brought the trait down to the current generation. Don't condemn it takes two carriers to Bully & Frenchy Bulldog mate to find out you got a trait consider this an opportunity to learn more about your Bully & Frenchy Bulldog bloodline.You don't have to toss all the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog on the reject pile either necessarily. If the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog trait is acceptable, for all it is undesirable & liveable for the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog, then just letting it go may be an option. If the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog trait is serious, then how you treat it may depend on how widespread it is in your Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breed. If it is rare, then best to cull these animals who are carriers from the gene pool. If it is common, then such a drastic approach may not be reasonable & you will have to use carefully marked Bully & Frenchy Bulldog pedigrees and/or Bully & Frenchy Bulldog test breedings to control the expression of the gene. After all, remember, it is not the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog gene that causes the problem, but the expression of that gene.
WHAT IS MEANT BY FRENCHIES & BULLIES POLYGENETIC? Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Polygenetic is how many serious problems in Bully & Frenchy Bulldog are characterized genetically. This means more than one gene is responsible for the condition's expression, & that means tracking the inheritance is more difficult & more frustrating than with simple dominants & simple recessives. Although it is certainly not precise, treating polygenetic situations as you would treat simple recessives is probably going to get you the best results as to controlling canine genetic disease, when your options for proof are limited. Certainly, both Bully & Frenchy Bulldog parents must be included as likely contributors to the disease. As a rule of thumb complex Bully & Frenchy Bulldog characteristics are polygenetic: Bully & Frenchy Bulldog hip conformation & Bully & Frenchy Bulldog-CHD disease, Bully & Frenchy Bulldog head conformation & the resulting Bully & Frenchy Bulldog bite, construction of internal organs that end in heart, kidney, etc. malformation or malfunction as well as normal function, of course. In some Bully & Frenchy Bulldog cases a single gene IS found to be the culprit, but in many cases Bully & Frenchy Bulldog inheritance is erratic & any particular form has not been documented, so these things get stuck into the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog polygenetic pile until they get sorted out. This does not mean they are not genetic because a certain proof of how they are inherited is lacking-that is more head in the sand tactics. If it occurs in a particular population (such as a certain breed or even bloodline) more often than in the general population, then, to be careful & conservative as a Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breeder, it must be treated with the caution of it being genetically inherited until proven otherwise. Anyone truly concerned with the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breed is not going to dismiss the evidence it is likely genetic to go on with a Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management in denial they are carrying down certain undesirable (or even debilitating) bulldog traits.
WHAT IS FRENCHIES & BULLIES CULLING & HOW IS IT USED? Culling is the removal of an individual from further Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management consideration. It is not necessarily killing. Any Bully & Frenchy Bulldog spayed or neutered is culled & could be called a cull, just like any animal who never has offspring technically is a cull. Culling is selecting Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings breeding stock, be it natural forces or breeders who choose who will produce & who will not. Culling out newborn Bully & Frenchy Bulldog puppies is something breeders learned from observing nature & from experience with certain early seen traits that indicate future problems. But culling out by Bulldog breeders, unlike in nature, is done by humane euthanasia, not by starvation, competition & exposure. Bulldog Puppies are not normally killed just for color, despite widespread myths & rumours to the contrary. Bulldog Puppies are usually euthanized for one of three reasons: a) the Bulldog litter has an excessive number of pups in it, b) the Bulldog pup(s) in question has a trait associated with serious defects than impair a normal life, or c) the Bulldog breeder is unable to find suitable homes for the Bulldog puppies in question. All are acts of extreme responsibility & no Bulldog breeder should be condemned for acting responsibility toward his/her Bulldog pups, Bulldog dam & Bulldog breed. Bulldog Breeders who cull out at birth are not less feeling than those who, for whatever reason (& it's too often from ignorance or emotion) choose not to immediately seperate out excess & defective Bulldog pups. Many would argue, in fact, that Bulldog breeders who cull out are in fact are simply braver, & are acting from a deep love for the Bulldog breed, the Bulldog pups & the Bulldog dam; for to have to euthanize lives you brought into the world is never less than a terribly heavy burden. Most breeders will be faced with the need to cull out newborns at some point & some breeders (e.g. Harlequin Dane breeders) face the issue often. Culling, however it is done, keeps the Bulldog breed strong by selecting only the best individuals to parent the next generation. It is a necessary Bulldog breeder's tool. Culling out Bulldog newborns when to keep them would have bad effects on the Bulldog pup itself, on the other Bulldog pups, the Bulldog dam &/or the Bulldog breed itself is just one of the least pleasant burdens being a Bulldog breeder brings. Culling in general is used by everyone who Bulldog breeds...including nature. Again culling is the natural aftermath of selecting one animal for Bulldog breeding over another. It's a necessary part of any Bulldog breeding program & the culls are not lesser in any sense per se: I do hope we are now at a time in Bulldog history we will no longer judge anyone, animals or women for that matter, based purely on their reproductive value.
WHAT IS FRENCHIES & BULLIES TEST-BREEDING & HOW IS IT USED? Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Test breeding is, classically, the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breeding of a suspected carrier to a Bully & Frenchy Bulldog known to have a certain trait, to determine if the suspected carrier is a carrier. One Bully & Frenchy Bulldog pup affected is a definite yes answer. Less than ~8 Bully & Frenchy Bulldog pups without the trait, however, is little to no assurance the suspected carrier can be cleared of its suspect status. Very few Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breeders actually & deliberately keep & breed a Bully & Frenchy Bulldog with PRA or vWD, although this is exactly how English breeders of Labradors practically deleted the genes for PRA out of their bloodstock. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Test breeding is a most effective tool & can also be used retroactively on any Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management you do. For example, when a Bully & Frenchy Bulldog at public stud develops PRA. If you bred to the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog & your stock remains clear, especially when it was suspect, then this can help provide info on the status of the Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs in question. The same sort of general information can be gathered & used when a Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management produces an affected individual to at least identify carriers. The trick is to use the info, not to bury it, or condemn the bulldog breeder who cared enough about their breed to announce it publicly when a Bully & Frenchy Bulldog of theirs is found to carry a serious defect. Thanking them would make more sense. This way, the next generation of Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breedings can be done with more information and, therefore, with potentially better results. As more & more Bully & Frenchy Bulldog genetic marker tests become available, we may more easily be able to identify bulldog carriers. What will we do then about the information we have?
FRENCHIES & BULLIES INBREEDING, FRENCHIES & BULLIES LINEBREEDING, FRENCHIES & BULLIES OUTCROSSING-WHICH IS BEST? To paraphrase the great Laura Kialenaus, what matters is the quality & qualities of the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog in question; not the formula by which Bully & Frenchy Bulldog are bred. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Linebreeding is often touted as some sort of special way to get good Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Linebreeding is simply weak inbreeding, so carries all the problems of both Bully & Frenchy Bulldog outcrossing & Bully & Frenchy Bulldog inbreeding & simply gives people uncomfortable with the idea of Bully & Frenchy Bulldog inbreeding a way to comfortably Bully & Frenchy Bulldog inbreed to retain desired characteristics. The degree of relationship, in any case, does not necessarily indicate the amount of Bully & Frenchy Bulldog genetic material shared. Every Bully & Frenchy Bulldog has seen two identical cousins, as well as brother-sister pairs as unlike as night & day to illustrate this point. Again, sophisticated decisions, based on in depth knowledge of what those pedigrees mean, are needed. To breed two Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs together, wisely & for good results, you must have intimate knowledge of the Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs in their respective bulldog pedigrees & what bulldog characteristics they likely share.
Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Outcrossing: used to be (still is?) the time honored way to deal with a Bully & Frenchy Bulldog genetic problem. When your Bully & Frenchy Bulldog line shows a problem, breed out to get rid of it. Except you don't it is still there, now just hidden, along with whatever the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog sire's family also contributed in secret. It may be back to haunt you & your Bully & Frenchy Bulldog puppy buyers later on. Document what you got & what you are getting. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Outcross when you need a hybrid state for best expression. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Outcross to bring things into your line you cannot find within it & know some unseen travelers will accompany the traits you desire. The best Bully & Frenchy Bulldog outcrosses may not really be outcrosses at all, as two separate Bully & Frenchy Bulldog families with similar styles & traits are merged together; different names, but maybe the same good genes for good heads are present, for example, in both Bully & Frenchy Bulldog families. These trait or type breedings, Bully & Frenchy Bulldog assortive & assortative matings, are a strategy to get the good genes for a trait without doubling up on a specific individual. They have the extra added advantage to the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breed, if not your specific Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management, of possibly helping to preserve diversity in the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog population. Of course, many Bully & Frenchy Bulldog outcrossings wouldn't be that if extended pedigrees were viewed: many breeds & many major & successful bloodlines in a breed go back to a handful of the same relatives (& this is not necessarily a bad thing, if the dogs were good). Again, information on the dogs in question is so necessary.
Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Inbreeding: brings Bully & Frenchy Bulldog skeletons out of the closet. They were already there, but now you have to face them. It can be a great tool for finding out what you didn't know about your Bully & Frenchy Bulldog bloodlines, but it takes a steely heart to face up to what you find. It also takes great Bully & Frenchy Bulldog to breed close as you are fixing traits fast & hard. The closer the breeding, the better the two Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs must be to make it worth it. Call weak Bully & Frenchy Bulldog inbreeding linebreeding if you like, but breeding Bully & Frenchy Bulldog closely related is technically inbreeding (although there is a good argument to separate the two), as the point is to double-up on desired Bully & Frenchy Bulldog family characteristics by doubling up on the desired genes. But most everything recessive in the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog family eventually pops up, good & bad, when line-breeding over Bully & Frenchy Bulldog generations, so eventually blind Bully & Frenchy Bulldog line-breeding leads to the same bottleneck as intense Bully & Frenchy Bulldog inbreeding; it just takes longer to get there. The bad news about Bully & Frenchy Bulldog inbreeding is that the homozygous sought may be found. In other words, you are trying to double up on genes for good heads or strong hearts, but also double up on the genes in the immune system & that can lead to Bully & Frenchy Bulldog inbreeding depression. So be careful what you wish for when Bully & Frenchy Bulldog inbreeding, especially repeatedly &/or tightly.
Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Brackett's Formula: Let the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog sire of the sire become the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog grandsire on the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog dam's side. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Lloyd Brackett's prescription for linebreeding has proven very effective when the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog linebred on is a truly superior example of the breed_&_can correct the weaknesses in the Bully & Frenchy Bulldogbitch & pedigree in question. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Pat Craige Trotter in her book Born To Win discusses some successful strategies & possible formulas for particular situations, but no cookbook approach to Bully & Frenchy Bulldog will ever work: breeding Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs is an artful science or a scientific art & takes both talent and study to properly accomplish. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Outcrossing can be like sweeping problems under the rug (if it is really an Bully & Frenchy Bulldog outcross that is done). The Bully & Frenchy Bulldog pups from two such lines now carry some mishmash of what either or both parents brought down out of their Bully & Frenchy Bulldog families.
FRENCHIES & BULLIES KENNEL BLINDNESS. All Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breeders have their favored characteristics & Bully & Frenchy Bulldog peeves. All are willing to sacrifice the perfection of certain Bully & Frenchy Bulldog traits to consistently achieve others they feel more important. This worldview on their chosen breed(s) leads to a style and the emphasis of certain traits within the correct type that breeder will be known for (e.g. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog size, Bully & Frenchy Bulldog headtype, Bully & Frenchy Bulldog longevity etc.). That many bulldog breeders have deliberate styles of Bully & Frenchy Bulldog is good for the breed; it preserves the variety & strength of the bulldog breed. But many breeders fall foul of their own likes & dislikes, especially at the beginning when they know little about the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breed & later on, as the years pass & they achieve some success, having now looked at the style they chose to Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breed so long they think of it often as the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breed itself. If this quality is combined with an intolerance for one's rivals and/or for the faults least liked and virtues most admired, a good line of Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs will dwindle down to be more memory & reputation than a still truly vital line producing excellent Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management blindness is also an almost universal trait of the Sour Grapes Society; those wannabees in a breed who have a thousand excuses for why their Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs don't succeed, all of them to due with the faults of other people & other people's Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management. It is also a major trait in so-called pet breeders who tend to not self-educate about the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breed at all, so don't really know much about the breed they may well adore. They generally let their love for their pets blind them to their breeding Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management worth...or lack thereof.
FRENCHIES & BULLIES BREEDING UP. This usually means using a well-known Bully & Frenchy Stud Bulldog on a poor quality bulldog female in the hopes her Bully & Frenchy Bulldog offspring will succeed where she failed. Stripped down to this raw definition it's obvious what a bad idea this is. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Stud owners should not let themselves be talked into ulldog breeding to sub-standard bitches & novices shouldn't attempt to get better bulldog pups this way. However it happens all too often. But the outcome is nearly always the same: the proud Bully & Frenchy Bulldog owners of those new bulldog pups find they are not enough better than their mother to be competitive & the stud bulldog owner finds the reputation of the sire is damaged by those who see these poor quality Bully & Frenchy Bulldog pups as typical of what he produces. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Stud owners shouldn't allow themselves to become this kennel blind. Worse is the idea of starting out with admitting pet animals & hoping to breed something better somehow. This falls under the old saw about silk purses & sows' ears, but incredibly is still attempted & defended as a way to start in Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management. You just cannot get there from here. Surely there are more than enough Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs in this world without starting out deliberately to make mediocre Bully & Frenchy Bulldog litters.
FRENCHIES & BULLIES BREEDING PEDIGREES (& other records), POPULAR FRENCHY & BULLY BULLDOG SIRE SYNDROME & FRENCHY & BULLY MATADORS. Too many people breed paper tigers: they breed Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs who are relatives of a famous Bully & Frenchy Bulldog as if they were somehow magic or just as good, they breed to a Bully & Frenchy Bulldog's popularity, it's show record, it's fame, or even to their best friend's Bully & Frenchy Bulldog or the closest, most convenient dog. It's astounding as much as has been written in the last century about the perils of Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breeding paper that it is still done so often. A Bully & Frenchy Bulldog sire is only as good as his get & his get will equally reflect the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog females taken to him. It's no use to hope the one (or ten) good pup(s) you saw out of him will happen to you when your Bully & Frenchy Bulldog female isn't like the bulldog dams of those bulldog pups. It's even worse to think that his fame will arise in his bulldog litters; one cannot take the parents' show records into the ring to convince the judge of the merits of their bulldog offspring. Nor can you honestly think that a Bully & Frenchy Bulldog having famous grandparents gives you a reason to breed. Further, when certain Bully & Frenchy Bulldog sires are overused in a breed, these popular sires become a potential danger to the breed. If their influence is too widespread, then it becomes hard Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management to breed away from them. Diversity of style as well as genes is lost in a Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breed. If said popular bulldog sire turns out to have a damaging genetic flaw, the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Popular Sire Syndrome has now spawned a Bulldog Matador, a Bully & Frenchy Bulldog whose late-recognised fault is now widespread enough in the breed to kill it. This is all bad practice. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management & Selection is lost when a pedigree or fame is the deciding factor for the choice of Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breeding partner. It's ill-educated to breed to an ad or a reputation. It's a doomed effort (except for sales) to breed for convenience or to "see what happens." And terrible dogs are made by blind line-breeding: faults are fixed in & a good Bully & Frenchy Bulldog line is eroded over time. Each Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management musts be done seeing the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog sire & Bully & Frenchy Bulldog dam as crowded in by their respective bulldog families when it comes to flaws, but standing alone when it comes to what virtues they can even potentially offer. There is, again, no recipe for breeding Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs & no substitute for a well-trained eye.
PRESERVING QUALITY & GENETIC DIVERSITY IN A FRENCHIES & BULLIES BREEDS. As Dr. Jerome Bell so succinctly put it: It is the varied opinion of Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management as to what constitutes the ideal Bully & Frenchy Bulldog, & their selection of bulldog breeding stock that maintains bulldog breed diversity. The current problem of erupting Bully & Frenchy Bulldog genetic disease, as far as it applies to bulldog pedigrees & bulldog breeding, reflects two trends. One is a problem of the Bulldog Matador, that is the Popular Bulldog Sire Syndrome. When all run to breed to a winning Bully & Frenchy Bulldog, or some bulldog or Bully & Frenchy Bulldog bloodline, (for whatever reason, be it convenience, ignorance or perceived value), Bully & Frenchy Bulldog genetic diversity can be lost. But indiscriminate universal assortative Bully & Frenchy Bulldog matings is not the answer to this problem & can actually reduce Bully & Frenchy Bulldog genetic diversity in the breed by homogenizing gene pairs across the whole bulldog breed. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Outcrossing cannot solve the problem of bulldog genetic disease anymore than inbreeding is the cause of it. However bulldog type breeding, that is, the Bully & Frenchy mating of two animals of similar looks, not similar bulldog pedigrees, can effect one particularly good thing which is the take-home message of diversity bulldog breeding: since the number of bulldog genes involved with creating a certain look are much less than the likely number doubled up with Bully & Frenchy Bulldog linebreeding, esp. blind bulldog linebreeding, time and again, on some famous" relative, the loss to the breed of heterozygousity is slowed & the individual Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs are arguably more safe from various Bully & Frenchy Bulldog line defects...while still having type.
The other major problems in Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs as to disease has little to do with hobby, show breeders & is largely a problem of casual Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management. Casual Breedings Genetic Management produces more than three-quarters of all registered dogs in the USA & assumably (nearly) 100% of mixed-breed litters. As a result of the low investment & high profitability (not just in money) that dog breeding brings to the average American household. There is a clear cultural support for anyone & everyone breeding their own Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs, & this license runs counter to the serious study & self-education process necessary to breed dogs well enough to avoid bad temperaments and worse health problems. That so many pet buyers do not clearly see this means casual Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management are able to enjoy having litters, & be certain of sales, even if their only credentials are that they love their dogs. These litters, despite the buying public's perception & causal breeder's claims, suffer often from major bulldog genetic problems they continue to pass along & they are often indiscriminately inbred, as they are usually exclusively local or narrowly regional Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management, often with the whole Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breeding population sustained by a couple of friends. What is needed is educated, dedicated, honest Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management & scrupulous selection. Bulldog Breeders need to know the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog they are using in their Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management & need to know them intimately. Each needs to have a clear priority of what they cannot live with & what they cannot live without & ideally each would clearly announce this somehow so others are clear on their priorities before they buy or breed from them. A variety of Bully & Frenchy Bulldog styles, Bully & Frenchy Bulldog lines, Bully & Frenchy Bulldog sub-populations, Bully & Frenchy Bulldog criss-crossing, separating & then, again, coming together in a wonderful breed mosaic, is the best recipe for maintaining Bully & Frenchy Bulldog type, Bully & Frenchy Bulldog health, Bully & Frenchy Bulldog temperament & Bully & Frenchy Bulldog diversity. & for all that diversity is a buzzword of fashion right now, it isn't at all a new idea, just a new term for the notion of having a variety of Bully & Frenchy Bulldog bloodlines within a breed. (Note also that Bully & Frenchy Bulldog diversity does not necessarily equal Bully & Frenchy Bulldog outcross.) What is needed in most all breeds is for more good Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs to be rooted out & recognised, despite their lack of glamour & dazzling ads. (That & for America to get serious about Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management & treat it with the gravity it deserves.) It would also help if more folks would work together to preserve Bully & Frenchy Bulldog bloodlines & create new ones by judicious crosses, so that variety would be preserved. For this more people will have to get educated about the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog history & Bully & Frenchy Bulldog styles of their breed; too many today simply breed to some current fashion or market, oblivious to the fact what they are seeing is simply fashion and not the standard for the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breed.
FRENCHIES & BULLIES SPORTS do not generally produce good Bully & Frenchy Bulldog offspring. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Sport is a term many Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breeders no longer use, but is a useful idea. A sport is the odd good Bully & Frenchy Bulldog in a Bully & Frenchy Bulldog litter that is otherwise uneven. It is traditionally the occasional decent Bully & Frenchy Bulldog found in a litter from an unlikely Bully & Frenchy Bulldog background & Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breeding. Usually such Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs are the fortuitous result of a mixed Bully & Frenchy Bulldog litter from a casual Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management, & the people who breed to the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog are the ones who pay the price for his mixed-up, casual Bully & Frenchy Bulldog pedigree & Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings genetic background. But Bully & Frenchy Bulldog sports can come about from breeding paper not Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs; from trying to breed up, from blind Bully & Frenchy Bulldog line-breeding, or any convenience or accidental Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Management. A bulldog sport is a Bully & Frenchy Bulldog by definition, almost, who is unable to reproduce himself, for all his good looks. Very uneven Bully & Frenchy Bulldog litters & erratic Bully & Frenchy Bulldog littermate traits result & are certainly not helpful to a bulldog breeding program & make it hard to track both good & bad traits with any likely success. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Sports can play another negative role in the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breed if they become famous Bully & Frenchy Bulldog showdogs or just popular Bully & Frenchy Bulldog sires for any reason. Not only are they breed despite the fact they are indifferent Bully & Frenchy Bulldog sires, their every mediocre relative is used with great enthusiasm as the family is all thought consistently good instead of seen for the inconsistent lot they really are.Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breeding paper instead of Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs has a consistently poor result, but breeding Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs who cannot reproduce themselves should be recognised as a poor practice as well.
Great & consistent Bully & Frenchy Bulldog bloodlines have been built on good, consistent Bully & Frenchy Bulldogs bred by knowledgeable Bully & Frenchy breeders. Purebred domestic species are based on concentrating family traits, so like dogs must somehow be bred together. Knowledge is the key here; knowing in depth what Bully & Frenchy Bulldog you are breeding. Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Buyers shouldn't reward those who breed casually, indifferently, or for superficial traits. & please don't condemn Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic Managements who have the courage to acknowledge the faults in their Bully & Frenchy Bulldog & their Bully & Frenchy Bulldog bloodlines or who try to elicit information & public discussion of the same. All Bully & Frenchy Bulldog bloodlines carry along faults, not just the ones where the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog faults are seen & reported. Again, the situation now is too often one where people breed without knowledge, producing affecteds & carriers Bully & Frenchy Bulldog & just not knowing it, as they don't keep adequate records, do enough homework, etc. Just ask yourself how this can be preferable to accumulating information than can only benefit the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breed. Who exactly benefits from all this ignorance? Surely not the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog, the potential Bully & Frenchy Bulldog breeding partners left in ignorance, or the potential Bully & Frenchy Bulldog puppy buyers. For the breeds to benefit from the control of genetic disease we need to do what most Code of Ethics demand: keep up with Bully & Frenchy Bulldog news in genetics & have an in-depth knowledge of the Bully & Frenchy Bulldog we are using. This means understanding the basics of Bully & Frenchy Bulldog inheritance & knowing how to apply them for good results in your Bully & Frenchy Bulldog Breedings Genetic practices. This means marking Bully & Frenchy Bulldog pedigrees with more than color & titles. This means accepting that most Bully & Frenchy Bulldog diseases we now struggle with have a genetic component & treating such situations conservatively & rationally. We need to educate ourselves, to stop reacting violently to the notion of Bully & Frenchy Bulldog genetic disease & start treating it with a more sophisticated & realistic view.
the author has given permission for it to be used for educational purposes only
We accept that we are responsible for the quality of life of Bullies & Frenchies in our care. We accept that the activities of man affect all the living things with which we share this planet. But we are slow to realize that as a result we have a duty of care for all living things. That duty extends to the breeding of Bullies & Frenchies for which we are responsible. When Bullies & Frenchies are bred by man for a purpose, the aim should be to meet certain goals: to improve the precision with which Bullies & Frenchies breeding outcomes can be predicted; to avoid the introduction & advance of Bullies & Frenchies characteristics deleterious to well-being; & to manage genetic resources & diversity between & within populations as set out in the Convention on Biological Diversity. These goals are summed up in the phrase precision Bullies & Frenchies breeding. They should apply whether animals are bred as sources of usable products or services for medical or scientific research, for aesthetic or cultural considerations, or as Bullies & Frenchies. Modern molecular & quantitative genetics & advances in reproductive physiology provide the tools with which these goals can be met.
School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, UK.